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Cyanobacterial blooms are a significant public health issue, particularly in summer Cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) produce a variety of toxins such as hepatotoxins, neurotoxins and dermatoxins which are detrimental to human and animal health.






Lake Inspiration

Lake Inspiration is a man-made water ski lake located just north of Otaki in the Manawatu region.

The lake started to get weed growth after 2/3 years because of the water inflows from Forest Lakes with canadian pond weed and hornwort becoming established.

The programme commenced in October 2014 and results to date have been encouraging with water clarity improved and only one outbreak of algae late in the 15/16 summer in March/April after a sustained period of hot weather where the lake was consistently over 30deg C.


Full case study
Products

Industry Leading Solutions

AquaSticker

AquaSticker

AquaSticker is a biological sticking agent that disrupts the protective microbiota of algae and aquatic plants. This product is the result of extensive research in the Naturalake Biosciences’ laboratory.  It is the latest innovation in aquatic bio-catalyst technologies.  AquaSticker stimulates competitive bacterial growth and encourages algae and aquatic plants to naturally uptake chemicals.

This versatile technology boosts herbicide and algaecide performance in a variety of applications.  It excels in hard water treatments and can be applied as a tablet or liquid as needed.  AquaSticker blends well with most chemistries and biologicals including PondZilla and Water Column Clarifier.

See how it works

The Science Behind It

Algae and aquatic plants host distinct microbial communities on their surface called the microbiota.  This diverse community of microorganisms (bacteria, fungi, archaea, and viruses) can be both mutualistic and pathogenic.  The microbiota plays a key role in protecting algae and aquatic plants from environmental impacts, pathogens, and chemical attacks.  It also is important in fixating nutrients for growth.  The community can adapt or shift according to the conditions to promote the health and survival of its host.

Improving performance of algaecide / herbicides

The effectiveness of a chemical treatment can be limited by the ability the microbiota to protect its host.  Shifting metabolic activities or reactions and producing thick biofilms are examples of how the microbiota defends algae and aquatic plants from copper, diquat, endothall, and other chemistries.

When blended in with algaecides and herbicides, AquaSticker temporarily disrupts the protective microbiota by fostering competitive microbial growth on algae and aquatic plants.  Upsetting the natural balance of this community temporarily enhances chemical uptake by the host.  AquaSticker also improves contact time with targeted algae and aquatic plants by slowing dissipation in the water column and increasing adhesion.

Improving performance of probiotics

AquaSticker’s unique traits and essential components allow it to combine well and improve the performance of our probiotics and biocatalysts (Water Column Clarifier and PondZilla Pro).  When blended together, AquaSticker and Water Column Clarifier will improve formation of microfloc which clarifies the water.  When mixed with PondZilla Pro, AquaSticker improves the biological reaction at the surface of the algae or plant.

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An Example of Lyngbya‘s Protective Microbiota

microbiota-pie-chartThis graph represents the microbiota surrounding a sample of Lyngbya tested in the lab.

Specifications

Common Uses

  • Lakes and ponds
  • Aquaculture
  • Hatcheries
  • Water features
  • Golf courses
  • Retention ponds
  • Decorative Ponds
  • And more!

Benefits

  • Increases chemical uptake
  • Speeds chemical reactions
  • Boosts probiotic performance
  • Improves adhesion and contact
  • Less chemical use
  • Safe for environment and applicator
  • Works especially well with copper sulfate

Available sizes

  • 13.6 kg pail, = 30 x 450g water-soluble packets
IngredientsBio-vitamins, probiotics, and micronutrients
DescriptionLight tan powder
OdorEarthy odor
pH7.0 – 7.5
Stability – Activity lossAt 24°C for 12 months*: 10% or less; At 38°C for 6 months*: 10% or less; *When stored as directed in a sealed container out of direct sunlight.
Storage and HandlingStore in a cool, dry space between 10 - 27°C. Keep out of direct sunlight and do not store with strong oxidizing agents.

Dosage

Dosage Rates

When mixed with algaecide or herbicide:

*Fully dissolve AquaSticker in chemical solution and spray evenly over target.  Do not mix directly with peroxide based algaecides.

Surface AcresCyanobacteriaPlanktonic AlgaeAquatic Plants
1/40.45 – 2.3 kg340 – 570 g110 – 570 g
1/21.1 – 4.5 kg230 – 680 g0.23 – 1.1 kg
12.3 – 9 kg0.45 – 1.4 kg0.45 – 2.3 kg
511.3 - 45 kg2.3 – 6.8 kg2.3 – 11.3 kg
1022.5 – 90 kg4.5 – 13.6 kg4.5 – 22.7 kg
100225 – 900 kg45 – 136 kg45 – 227 kg

Case Studies

LOCATION: Michigan
SIZE: 4 acres
TARGET: Cyanobacteria (Lyngbya), HAB’s (Harmful Algal Bloom)
SUMMARY: A lake at the center of a residential community was experiencing harmful algal blooms that limited use of the lake. The cyanobacteria, Lyngbya, bloomed frequently throughout the summer season and was not responding to traditional chemical treatments.
SOLUTION: Incorporate AquaSticker into chemical treatments to kill the cyanobacteria and apply MuckBiotics to reduce the internal nutrient load.
RESULTS: Cyanobacteria blooms were reduced in both frequency and intensity and the lake became safe for residence to use.
LOCATION: Florida
SIZE: 38 surface acres
TARGET: Various aquatic plants
SUMMARY: This lake was experiencing outbreaks of various aquatic plants including bladderwort, water shield and fragrant water lilies. Targeting several species and restricted access to the waterbody was limiting treatment options and coverage.
SOLUTION: Added AquaSticker to the herbicide combination to improve adhesion and increase herbicide uptake.
RESULTS: The treatment was successful, and the lake remained clear of the targeted aquatic plants 40 days after the initial treatment.

Downloads

Phoslock

Phoslock

Phoslock is a unique water treatment product that permanently binds phosphorus in water bodies

What is Phoslock?
Phoslock is a product designed for phosphate removal from water. Its active component is lanthanum which reacts with phosphate forming an insoluble and biologically inert compound. Its ability to bind phosphate makes it an effective tool in lake restoration.

Phoslock was developed in Australia by the CSIRO as a way of utilising the ability of lanthanum to bind phosphate but at the same time making it safe for use in natural aquatic systems.

When used in lake restoration, Phoslock is usually added to the lake as a slurry. As this sinks through the water column it binds phosphate as it goes. Once settled on the sediment it can continue to bind phosphate released from the sediment, thus controlling one of the major blocks to lake restoration – sediment phosphorus release.

The ability of Phoslock to bind phosphate is important because phosphate is the form of phosphorus which is biologically available and used by plants – especially algae in lakes, to promote growth. Excessive amounts of phosphate entering water courses is one of the main causes of deterioration of water quality in freshwaters today because of the way it drives algal productivity and undesireable changes in the balance of aquatic life. The process is known as eutrophication. The ability to remove biologically available phosphorus in a lake is therefore a major step towards improving water quality.

Phoslock can be used in lakes and ponds as well as other standing waters (e.g. reservoirs, fish hatcheries) where high phosphate levels are causing problems. It is not usually applied to flowing waters.

The Science Behind It

Phoslock – technical information
Phoslock is comprised of 95% bentonite and 5% lanthanum. It is manufactured through a controlled ion-exchange process whereby cations within the bentonite are exchanged with lanthanum cations. The result is that lanthanum held within the bentonite structure retains its ability to bind phosphate, but does not readily dissociate, i.e. will not form free ions in water.Phoslock is manufactured as a dry granule which makes it easy to transport and store. It is usually applied as a slurry, being mixed first with some in situ water before being spread across the surface of the water body being treated.

How does Phoslock Work?
Phoslock works by utilizing the ability of lanthanum to react with phosphate. Removal of phosphate by lanthanum is highly efficient and has a molar ratio of 1:1 which means that one ion of lanthanum will bind with one ion of phosphate as follows;

La3+ + PO43- => LaPO4

The product of the reaction is lanthanum phosphate (LaPO4). The important point is that lanthanum phosphate is highly insoluble which means it won’t dissolve, which in turn means it is not biologically available. This is the process by which phosphate (which is dissolved and therefore biologically available) is rendered non-biologically available.Lanthanum phosphate is analogous to a highly insoluble, naturally occurring mineral known as Rhabdophane. Lanthanum is also present in the sediments of many lakes, with typical background concentrations of around 40 mg/kg dry weight.

How does Phoslock work within a water body?
Phoslock granules are generally mixed with in situ water and applied to a water body as a slurry. This has the effect of creating many tiny particles of Phoslock which sink slowly through the water column. As the slurry settles, phosphate in the water column binds to lanthanum contained within the Phoslock, stripping most of the phosphate from the water column. Once settled on the sediment it forms a very thin layer, usually less than 1 mm thick. There it will continue to bind phosphate coming out of the sediment, until the lanthanum binding sites are saturated, at which point no further binding will take place.

Once on the sediment, Phoslock, and the lanthanum phosphate within it, remain as in inert mineral component of the sediment. The nature of the bond between lanthanum and phosphate is such that it will not be broken under a pH range wider than found in almost any natural lake (pH 4-11). Even more importantly, the bond will not be broken under anoxic (low redox potential) conditions, which are prevelant in most lake sediments and many overlying waters. Most other phosphorus binders, especially those containing iron, will release phosphate under anoxic conditions.

How much phosphate does Phoslock remove?
One tonne of Phoslock is capable of removing 34 kg of phosphate (PO4) or 11 kg of phosphorus (P). With this information and a knowledge of the amount of biologically available phosphorus in the water and surface sediments of a lake, it is possible to fairly accurately calculate the Phoslock dose for a waterbody.

Phoslock and algal growth
algal bloomPhosphate is an important food source of algae (particularly blue green algae). By removing phosphate from the water column and preventing its release from sediments, Phoslock essentially deprives algae of an important food source and the proliferation of algae, particularly blue green algae, is reduced.

Both nitrogen and phosphorus are important nutrients for algal growth, however the growth of blue green algae is generally not limited by the concentration of nitrogen as many species of blue green algae can fix and store nitrogen from the atmosphere. The proliferation of blue green algae in a water body is related to the competitive advantage they have over other phytoplankton groups (such as diatoms and green algae) when excess phosphorus is available in the water.

The reduction of phosphate levels in a water body and its sediments through an application of Phoslock will therefore result in a significant reduction of blue green algae and the restoration of healthy ecological conditions which favour the growth of diatoms, green algae and macrophytes.

Benefits of Phoslock
Phoslock offers a wide range of benefits over other methods of reducing phosphorus concentrations in lakes and reservoirs. The combination of these benefits makes Phoslock a unique and innovative solution to eutrophication control.

Some of the most important benefits of Phoslock include:

Reduction of phosphate
The ability of Phoslock to reduce phosphate to levels close to or below standard detection limits (< 10 µg/L) has been well demonstrated in a large number of both laboratory and field applications. Importantly, dosages can also adjusted to achieve phosphorus concentrations that fall within a particular target range (e.g. 20-30 µg/L). This approach is used when it is necessary to reduce phosphorus concentrations to levels that are sufficiently low to prevent blooms of blue green algae but high enough to ensure that the natural level of productivity in the system is retained.

Rapid uptake of phosphate
The kinetic uptake of phosphate by Phoslock varies to some degree according to water chemistry, however in most situations, more than 90% of available phosphate is bound within three hours of an application of Phoslock.

Eco-toxicological safety
mayflyMany eco-toxicity tests have been undertaken on a wide range of test species by a variety of independent academic and governmental research institutions over the past ten years. Collectively, these reports demonstrate that Phoslock has a very low toxicity and is safe to use in all naturally occurring environmental conditions at the recommended dosages. A detailed overview of these studies has been produced by Phoslock Water Solutions’ Technical Team and can be downloaded from the Eco-Toxicity Assessment page.

In addition, unlike other methods of binding phosphate (such as iron and aluminium salts), an application of Phoslock will have no effect on either the pH or the conductivity of the water body.

Stability under varying conditions
Unlike other methods that could be used to immobilize phosphorus in water and sediments, Phoslock is insensitive to the range of redox, temperature and pH conditions that are naturally found in lakes and reservoirs. Furthermore, buffering is not required prior to an application.

Resistance to resuspension
lake in finland with pierSeveral studies have been conducted to determine the resistance of a Phoslock sediment capping to resuspension at different flow velocities. All studies have shown that Phoslock has substantially higher resistance to resuspension than aluminium or iron salts, which can also be used to immobilize phosphorus in sediments. This is not surprising given that the density of Phoslock is much higher than flocculants and highlights the suitability of Phoslock for use, even in shallow lakes.

Long term effect
Following the application of Phoslock to a water body, any phosphate that has reacted with the lanthanum in the clay will remain permanently bound. Furthermore, any lanthanum sites in the clay matrix that have not reacted with phosphate remain active and will continue to bind phosphate (from both external and internal sources) until saturated. This means that an application of Phoslock can be designed to achieve a sustained reduction in phosphate levels.

Case Studies

LAKE OKAREKA, NEW ZEALAND

Lake Okareka is a 330 ha lake on the North Island of New Zealand located in a rich dairying region.  Between August 2005 and March 2007, three separate applications of Phoslock totalling 60 tonnes were undertaken by Environmental Bay of Plenty, the regional environment authority in an effort to remove 0.1 tonnes of phosphorus  from the lake per year for three years.  The applications were undertaken over a surface area of 170 hectares, encompassing the deeper basin of the lake approximately within the 20m contour.

This action was considered necessary by the Lake Okareka Working Party as part of the Lake Okareka Action Plan as the lake was showing increasing evidence of depleted oxygen levels in the bottom water towards the end of summer and nutrients were being released from sediments.  Hypolimnetic discharge was initially considered, however this was discounted due to its cost.

Comprehensive monitoring of the lake before and after the Phoslock treatments has shown that the Phoslock addition has reduced the release of phosphorus from the bottom sediments by the targeted 100 kg / year.  An additional benefit of the applications has been a decrease in the rate of de-oxygenation of the bottom waters.  No adverse effects of the treatment have been noted in the lake chemistry or fish and koura health.

CANNING AND VASSE RIVERS, AUSTRALIA

The applications of Phoslock on impounded sections of the Canning and Vasse Rivers in 2000 / 2001 by the Western Australian Water and Rivers Commission, the Swan River Trust and CSIRO Land and Water were the first full scale applications of Phoslock and were undertaken as trials during the development of Phoslock to determine whether the application of Phoslock could significantly reduce the bio-availability of phosphorus in the water column and sediments of these rivers.

The Canning River application involved the application of 40 tonnes of Phoslock to an 800m section of the river in January 2000, while the Vasse River was treated within an initial application of 20 tonnes of Phoslock on a 650m section during October 2001, followed by two subsequent applications of 10 tonnes each in December 2001 and January 2002.

The applications resulted in reductions in phosphorus concentrations in the water column to below detection limits and substantial reductions in phosphorus efflux from sediments during the course of the trials.  A reduction in phytoplankton growth was also clearly evident in the phytoplankton dominated Vasse River.  The results from the applications are contained in the downloadable documents presented on this page.

An additional application of 50 tonnes of Phoslock on the Canning River was undertaken by the Western Australian State Government in February 2010.

TORRENS LAKE, AUSTRALIA

Torrens Lake is an impounded section of the Torrens River, a meandering river running through the centre of the city of Adelaide in the Australian State of South Australia. The lake was treated with 50 tonnes of Phoslock in March 2007 and a further 12 tonnes of Phoslock in February 2008. The purpose of the treatments was to reduce the potential for the development of blue green algal blooms that might have threatened scheduled events of the “Adelaide Festival”, a major festival held in the city during February and March. Blue green algal blooms had resulted in the closure of the lake to recreational use in seven of the ten years prior to the Phoslock application.

The results from the 2007 application indicate that Phoslock appeared to have significantly altered the nutrient availability within Torrens Lake, with Phoslock having created and retained a barrier at or near the sediment water interface in four out of the six tested sites seven months after the treatment.

The 2008 Phoslock application provided evidence of a decrease in total algal biomass and cyanobacterial abundance in the water column soon after application. Sediment analysis suggests that the Phoslock treatment reduced the release of bio-available phosphorus, however a redistribution of lanthanum within the lake also occurred after the treatment, possibly due to scouring and drift. As the lake forms part of a river system, applications of Phoslock at critical times in each summer may be required for effective results. No adverse effects of the application on aquatic fauna were measured after either application.

 

 

Application

Once the pre-treatment assessment is completed and a decision to proceed to an application has been made, preparations for the treatment can begin.

Application systems

Most applications of Phoslock consist of a venturi mixing system mounted on a motorized barge that is fed with material from a hopper.

Lake water is pumped into the system to allow continuous mixing and the resulting slurry is dispersed onto the lake from a spray boom mounted on the back of the barge.  A GPS system is also installed to ensure that the slurry is applied evenly and to the correct location.

Large scale projects involving the application of more than one hundred tonnes of Phoslock are undertaken using product in one tonne bulk bags. Up to ten tonnes of material can be placed on the barge at one time and these bags are lifted by a small on board crane. Up to 50 tonnes of material can be applied to a lake per day using these large systems, with even higher daily application rate.

For small scale applications, a variety of simple systems are available in which product is mixed into a slurry and sprayed onto the surface of the water body from the shore.

Application strategies

Application strategies can be tailored to the particular characteristics of the water body. GPS and depth detection systems are used at all times and it is therefore possible to apply higher dosages of Phoslock to areas of a water body where concentrations of phosphorus in the water or sediment are known to be particularly high.

It is also possible to apply Phoslock either directly onto the surface of the water body or directly into the hypolimnion, or deeper water. The latter approach may be taken when most of the phosphorus in a water body is either in the sediment or the hypolimnion.

Post-treatment monitoring

Following an application, a comprehensive monitoring program is implemented to confirm that the outcome of the application is consistent with the pre-treatment prognosis.

Post-treatment monitoring generally includes measurement of the same parameters that have been measured during the pre-treatment assessment of the water body.  These include chemical parameters such as total and soluble nutrients, metals and carbon as well as biological indicators such as chlorophyll a.  A variety of on-site measurements are also taken, including dissolved oxygen, pH, redox, temperature and conductivity.

Samples are collected regularly during the 12 months following the application so that a complete picture of the limnological development of the lake can be obtained.  Depending on the size and the depth of the lake, samples are also collected from multiple locations and multiple depths.

Sediment samples are also collected on at least one occasion following the treatment so that changes that have occurred in sediment composition as a result of the application can be measured.

Following the conclusion of the post-treatment monitoring program, treatment reports are generally prepared and submitted to the water body owner (and water authorities if required).

Nature's Blend

Nature's Blend

Promotes balanced ecosystem after chemical treatment

Nature’s Blend is a Temperature Driven Solution that excels between 14.4°C-25.6°C. This dry probiotic formula is enhanced with psychrophilic, neutrophilic, and mesophilic microorganisms and select stimulants to ensure optimal performance. Nature’s Blend will quickly cycle out excess nitrogen and phosphorus compounds in aquatic environments. Made for aquatic professionals, it promotes a balanced aquatic ecosystem and rapid recovery from both adverse environmental impacts and chemical treatments.

Nature’s Blend excels when used alone and can be applied as a dry powder or dissolved and sprayed over the surface of the water. For an extra boost, use Nature’s Blend in combination with PondZilla Pro or AquaSticker.

See how it works

The Science Behind It

Water bodies have stress from both external and internal sources. Excessive rains or draught combined with ongoing use of algaecides and herbicides deplete the microbial communities that are fundamental to nutrient removal in water bodies. This imbalance in the ecosystem leads to elevated nutrient issues and can result in excessive aquatic plant growth, continuing algal blooms, and HABs.

Nature’s Blend was formulated through years of research by obtaining samples from lakes and ponds across the United States when water temperatures were mild. The natural microbial communities in the samples were analyzed to understand population densities and the specific organisms that are depleted by stresses. This research is how Naturalake BioSciences was able to create a probiotic that supplements natural populations and supports indigenous organisms that are functional and native to that geography. Nature’s Blend is more than simple additions of beneficial bacteria. It is a scientifically formulated probiotic that works in harmony with the microbial communities that play key roles in nitrogen and phosphorus uptake. Real science. Real Results.

Specifications

Common Uses

  • Lakes and ponds
  • Aquaculture
  • Hatcheries
  • Water features
  • Golf courses
  • Retention ponds
  • Decorative Ponds
  • And more!

Benefits

  • Consumes nutrients
  • Balances Ponds
  • Lowers ammonia
  • Clarifies water
  • Reduces sludge

Available Sizes

  • 13.6 kg pail = 60 bags per bucket
IngredientsMicronutrients and select bacterial cultures
DescriptionDry tan powder
OdorEarthy odor
pH7.0
Stability – Activity lossAt 24°C for 12 months*: 10% or less; At 38°C for 6 months*: 10% or less; *When stored as directed in a sealed container out of direct sunlight.
Storage and HandlingStore in a cool, dry space between 10 - 27°C. Keep out of direct sunlight and do not store with strong oxidizing agents.

Dosage

Dosage Rates
Apply bi-weekly when water temperatures are 14 – 25°c.

Surface AcresInitial ApplicationStandard ApplicationHypereutrophic Water
1/4450 g225 – 450 g680 g
1/2680 g450 – 680 g1.36 kg
11.36 kg0.45 – 1.36 kg2.7 kg
56.8 kg2.3 – 6.8 kg13.6 kg
1013.6 kg4.5 – 13.6 kg27 kg
100136 kg45 – 136 kg272 kg

Applications

Included in treatment programs for:

  • Filamentous Algae
  • Planktonic Algae
  • Cyanobacteria

 

  • Muck & Sludge
  • Water Clarity
  • Nutrient Reduction

 

  • Aquatic Plants
  • Submerged Plants
  • Unique Issues

Downloads

MuckBiotics

MuckBiotics

Advance Sludge Removing Probiotic

MuckBiotics are a next generation probiotic tablet for restoration and maintenance of impaired water resources. This advanced probiotic combines scientific research with novel bioengineering, resulting in a product that treats the entire water body by starting at the bottom. MuckBiotics tablets saturate the sediment layer with rare earth stimulants and a broad spectrum of natural bacterial cultures. This establishes a healthy microbiota at the water-to-sediment interface that accelerates the digestion of organic matter.

See how it works

The Science Behind It

Backed by years of intensive study. MuckBiotics have been proven to reduce organic matter and key nutrients in muck through a study using a lab setup that more closely mimics real life water bodies than any previous study. Read the full study or learn more about the details below.

Laboratory Evaluationin Freshwater Replica Tanks

  • Complete metagenomic DNA analysis of sediment microbiota using the Illumina NovaSeq6000
  • Sediment volume and quantitative analysis of control and test tanks
  • Full sediment nutrient and water quality assessment
  • Testing tanks designed to mimic real water conditions, such as natural water movement and clay/sand layer

 muck-tanks-testing

 

average-sediment-levels-muckbiotics

Specifications

Common Uses

  • Lakes and ponds
  • Aquaculture
  • Shorelines
  • Golf courses
  • Retention ponds
  • Decorative Ponds
  • And more!

Benefits

  • Removes buildup of organic matter.
  • Improves water quality and clarity
  • Restores balance to water bodies
  • Reduces internal nutrient load

Available sizes

  • 13.6 Kg Bags
IngredientsBio-vitamins, probiotics, and select bacterial cultures
DescriptionDry brown tablet
OdorEarthy odor
Stability – Activity loss<1% Loss in 6 months when stored as directed: at 24°C in a sealed container with low humidity.
Storage and HandlingStore in a cool, dry space between 10 - 27°C.

Dosage

Once per month or as needed.

*Do not mix directly with algaecides or herbicides.
**If used in conjunction with algaecide or herbicide, apply after chemical treatment for best results.

Surface AcresTargeted Muck ReductionMuck Maintenance & PreventionDegradation of Floating Debris
1/42.3 – 5.7 kg1.1 – 2.8 kg0.57 – 1.7 kg
1/24.5 – 11.3 kg2.3 – 5.7 kg1.1 – 3.4 kg
19 – 23 kg4.5 – 11.3 kg2.3 – 6.8 kg
545 – 113 kg9 – 57 kg9 – 34 kg
1091 – 227 kg45 – 113 kg23 – 68 kg
100907 – 2270 kg454 – 1130 kg227 – 680 kg

Include in Treatment Programs for

  • Filamentous Algae
  • Planktonic Algae
  • Cyanobacteria
  • Muck & Sludge
  • Water Clarity
  • Nutrient Reduction
  • Aquatic Plants
  • Submerged Plants
  • Unique Issues

Downloads